Healthcare Professionals

The mōmi bottle and feeding system are specifically designed to address problems with conventional bottle feeding systems that do not support breastfeeding mothers and the option to go from breast to bottle to breast or the health of infants.

At mōmi, we have aimed to replicate natural nursing by focusing on the important biomechanical properties of nursing. We have sought to eliminate the differences between bottle feeding and breastfeeding so that parents and caregivers can confidently go from breast to bottle to breast again. Using evidence-based research into infant oral mechanics and bottle flow mechanics, we have created a nipple that has the same soft, stretchy properties as maternal tissue while also responding to compression shut-off and vacuum pressure in function.

We, as providers, have seen many infants learn these differences without any difficulty, but others struggle. We see choking, flooding of milk in the mouth and uncoordinated swallowing from some infants when they attempt to bottle feed. While others prefer the free-flowing, easy to feed from bottles so much that they struggle to go back to the breast. Both of these phenomena are under the heading of nipple confusion.

Nipple confusion, and even the possibility of nipple confusion, can be excessively stressful for parents and caregivers of infants. Whether it is the broken-hearted mother whose infant refuses to nurse again after bottle introduction or the captive nursing mother whose infant will not take a bottle, we have all seen these cases.

Where does nipple confusion originate? The research around infant feeding is vast and at times contradictory. Studies have cited artificial nipple properties, infant oral mechanics, infant suck-swallow-breathe patterns and maternal-infant interactions as sources of feeding difficulties.

The mōmi nipple is designed to mimic natural tissue mechanics with this first-of-its-kind blend of silicones that creates a solid nipple with a central duct that responds to both vacuum suction and compression shut off while also stretching the length of the hard palate.

We tested our bottle with the most challenging of babies - bottle refusers. We conducted several field studies prior to launch, enrolling hundreds of infants ranging from 0 to 12 months.

Please watch their mothers tell of their experience with the mōmi bottle.

The mōmi bottle was designed with the input of biomechanical engineering, pediatrics and material science as well as a passion for our mission to make life better for moms and their babies while mimicking nature’s gold standard.

Research and Development

Conventional bottle nipples are not designed to mimic natural nursing. They are typically made from silicone material nearly as hard as tire rubber, are hollow and have no stretch. Lacking softness, stretchiness and response to compression, the inherent property differences in the nipple material requires that infants learn different feeding mechanics for bottle feeding.

The mechanics of sucking have been researched since 1958 (2) and continue today with ultrasound and other imaging modalities working to understand the intra-oral mechanics of both breast and bottle feeding (3) (4) (5). We are particularly interested in babies that go from breast to bottle to breast. Studies have gone back and forth about the impact of compression, vacuum and infant tongue movement (peristaltic vs piston/driving motions). However, one of the mother’s in our field study, a NICU nurse, noted an audible difference between babies breastfeeding, drinking from conventional bottle systems and the momi bottle system. Watch her feedback on the differences she heard with the momi system.

Testimony of mom talking about sound or observed mechanics during feeding with mōmi bottle vs conventional bottle.

These studies and videos highlight the material property differences in artificial nipple behavior during feeding. The hard silicone material of the artificial nipple prevents stretch (6).

The mōmi nipple is designed to not only be as strong and safe as conventional bottle nipple but also be more flexible and stretchy.

Another significant issue with conventional bottles is flow control. Conventional bottle nipples flow under gravity and that flow increases variably with the application of suction. Depending on the size of the orifice in the nipple, artificial nipples can flow freely, even under the basic force of gravity (7). When suction is applied by the infant, the flow rate can increase significantly, resulting in large volume flow during infant sucking action (8).

There is also high variability in flow amongst all commercially available nipples on the market, making bottle selection stressful and unreliable (9) (10) (11).

The mōmi nipple, with its central duct, is designed to resist drip flow. Even though we have multiple duct sizes to accommodate growing and strengthening infants’ needs, the increased surface area of the silicone in the duct vs conventional bottle orifices resists milk drippage. Being able to safely and reliably resist drip flow and function more similar to maternal tissue physiology will help prevent overfeeding and feeding pace stressors.

Natural feeding regulation
Part of mōmi’s mission in making life better for moms and their babies is also returning to the natural rhythm of feeding. Nursing requires an active, engaged infant - some pediatricians and caregivers have even referred to nursing as exercise. During nursing, babies are able to self-regulate their feedings, able to start and stop on their own (12). Traditional bottle feeding, gives control to the caregiver regarding volume, timing and even pace of the feeding. Infants are passive participants in bottle feedings (13).

By mimicking natural physiology, infants will be able to continue their self-regulation patterns seen in breastfeeding (12). Due to the active nature of the feeding interaction with the mōmi nipple, the infant will be able to start and stop without flooding their mouth or risk choking.

There is an evolving body of knowledge regarding obesity and specifically infant feeding’s relationship with pediatric obesity (15).

Cited Studies

1. Literature review that cites 8 articles on mechanics, 13 articles on milk flow, and 10 studies on parent/infant relationship with bottle feeding
2. A cineradiographic study of bottle feeding
3. Mechanics of sucking: Comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding
4. Perioral motor and sucking differences in breast and conventional bottle feeding
5. Tongue movements and teat compression during bottle feeding: A pilot study of a quantitative ultrasound approach
6. Imaging Evaluation of Artificial Nipples During Bottle Feeding
7. Determinants of Milk Flow Through Nipple Units: Role of Hole Size and Nipple Thickness
8. Imaging evaluation of breastfeeding and bottle feeding systems
9. Know the flow: Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used in the hospital and after discharge
10. Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge
11. Milk flow rates from bottle nipples used for feeding hospitalized infants
12. The development of differences in the feeding behavior of bottle and breast fed human infants from birth to two months
13. Maternal behavior during breast and bottle feeding
14. Bottle Feeding’s Correlation with Pediatric Obesity

Other publications for consideration:

Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors